The species was first recognised by von Koenigswald (1935) and was later discovered in a sedimentary context in Daxin cave (Pei and Woo, 1956) since then more than 1500 teeth and some four mandibles have been discovered over 20 sites that are all restricted to southern China and northern Vietnam (Jin, Zhang et al., 2008; 2014; Zhang et al., 2014b).

Fig. 2: Location of Guangxi ZAR and Giganto sites – B-C refers to the Bubing Basin

(top inset) and Chongzhuo (bottom inset). The area around Chongzhuo has been expanded to show the Ecological Park (right inset). ‘Past Arctic’ and ‘Oriental’ refers to past climate zones. Note; the hominid occupation site is outside of the G. blacki sub-tropical zone.


Chongzhuo ecological park

Fieldseasons: July each year

A dense towering karst region close to Chongzhuo, southwest of Nanning with many Giganto-bearing caves, channelling the Zuojiang River. Due to tectonic uplift in the region The oldest caves and therefore the oldest Giganto fossils ~1.5 Ma lie at ~200 m asl, whereas the younger caves and youngest Giganto material at 400-200 ka lie at an elevation of ~ 170-180 m asl. We will be targeting the lowest Giganto and non-Giganto bearing caves.

Bubing Basin

Fieldseasons: December each year

A large basin to the north west of Nanning – surrounded by towering karst and nestled alongside the larger Bose Basin, which both channel the Youjiang River. This area also contains many of the older Giganto-bearing caves along with numerous at the lower elevation. Many of the youngest caves have yet to be explored.


  • von Koenigswald, G.H.R., 1935. Proc. Kon. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam 38, 872-879.
  • Jin, C., Wang, Y., Deng, C., Harrison, T., Qin, D., Pan, W., Zhang, Y., Zhu, M., Yan, Y., 2014. Quaternary International 353, 4-14.
  • Jin, C., Qin, D., Pan, W., Tang, Z., Liu, J., Wang, Y., Deng, C., Zhang, Y., Dong, W., Tong, H., 2008. Chinese Science Bulletin 54 788-797
  • Zhang, Y., Kono, R., Jin, C., Wang, W., Harrison, T., 2014b. Journal of Human Evolution 75, 166-171.